How do analysts use programming and software engineering in the UK Public Sector?

Please note it is possible that the figures presented here will change in future.

While any changes to the data are not likely to be substantial, we are planning to carry out more in-depth analysis and the commentary may change. As such, we recommend linking to these pages rather than sharing this analysis any other way at this stage. We will be regularly updating these pages with additional outputs and insights.

The coding in analysis and research survey (CARS) was developed to better understand how programming is used by government analysts. Most questions focused on whether and how analysts use code in their work. The survey is also concerned with Reproducible Analytical Pipelines (RAP). You can find links to further information on RAP at the bottom of this page.

The survey was distributed to government analysts and researchers in the Autumn of 2021. The results presented here summarise the key findings from 912 respondents from over 50 public sector organisations. You can find the 2020 findings in last year’s publication.

Who is this research for?

This research was made with senior analysts and leaders in mind. It is intended to be be useful for the development of strategies for public sector analysis and research. These findings should also be of interest to analysts and researchers in the public sector who are interested in understanding more about how their professions use programming in their work. Lastly, it will be useful to people outside the public sector who are interested in understanding the tools that are used in the public sector for analysis and research.

How to use this research


  • Explore the data to gain insights about current coding practices in government analysis and research
  • Re-use the outputs if you wish


  • Attempting to estimate absolute frequencies - we did not use random sampling
  • Inferring differences between groups - these outputs are only intended to be descriptive and inferential tests were not carried out unless stated otherwise

More information on reproducible analytical pipelines

Quality assurance for coding in analysis and research

Reproducible Analytical Pipelines (RAP) MVP

RAP champions network

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Contact details

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If you are interested in this survey or any of the questions asked please contact

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